A Review of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Nanodiamond Based Strain Sensor in Harsh Environments (Invited Review)

Xiaoyan Wang, Eng Gee Lim, Kai Hoettges, Pengfei Song*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Flexible and wearable electronics have attracted significant attention for their potential applications in wearable human health monitoring, care systems, and various industrial sectors. The exploration of wearable strain sensors in diverse application scenarios is a global issue, shaping the future of our intelligent community. However, current state-of-the-art strain sensors still encounter challenges, such as susceptibility to interference under humid conditions and vulnerability to chemical and mechanical fragility. Carbon materials offer a promising solution due to their unique advantages, including excellent electrical conductivity, intrinsic and structural flexibility, lightweight nature, high chemical and thermal stability, ease of chemical functionalization, and potential for mass production. Carbon-based materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanodiamond, have been introduced as strain sensors with mechanical and chemical robustness, as well as water repellency functionality. This review reviewed the ability of carbon nanotubes-, graphene-, and nanodiamond-based strain sensors to withstand extreme conditions, their sensitivity, durability, response time, and diverse applications, including strain/pressure sensors, temperature/humidity sensors, and power devices. The discussion highlights the promising features and potential advantages offered by these carbon materials in strain sensing applications. Additionally, this review outlines the existing challenges in the field and identifies future opportunities for further advancement and innovation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108
JournalC-Journal of Carbon Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • carbon nanotubes
  • graphene
  • harsh environment
  • nanodiamond
  • strain sensor


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