An In-Depth Exploration of the Effect of 2D/3D Views and Controller Types on First Person Shooter Games in Virtual Reality

Diego Monteiro, Hai Ning Liang, Jialin Wang, Hao Chen, Nilufar Baghaei

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingConference Proceedingpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The amount of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) research has significantly increased over the past few years, both in academia and industry. The release of commercial VR Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) has been a major contributing factor. However, there is still much to be learned, especially how views and input techniques, as well as their interaction, affect the VR experience. There is little work done on First-Person Shooter (FPS) games in VR, and those few studies have focused on a single aspect of VR FPS. They either focused on the view, e.g., comparing VR to a typical 2D display or on the controller types. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies investigating variations of 2D/3D views in HMDs, controller types, and their interactions. As such, it is challenging to distinguish findings related to the controller type from those related to the view. If a study does not control for the input method and finds that 2D displays lead to higher performance than VR, we cannot generalize the results because of the confounding variables. To understand their interaction, we propose to analyze in more depth, whether it is the view (2D vs. 3D) or the way it is controlled that gives the platforms their respective advantages. To study the effects of the 2D/3D views, we created a 2D visual technique, PlaneFrame, that was applied inside the VR headset. Our results show that the controller type can have a significant positive impact on performance, immersion, and simulator sickness when associated with a 2D view. They further our understanding of the interactions that controllers and views have and demonstrate that comparisons are highly dependent on how both factors go together. Further, through a series of three experiments, we developed a technique that can lead to a substantial performance, a good level of immersion, and can minimize the level of simulator sickness.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR 2020
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages713-724
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781728185088
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020
Event19th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR 2020 - Virtual, Recife/Porto de Galinhas, Brazil
Duration: 9 Nov 202013 Nov 2020

Publication series

NameProceedings - 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR 2020

Conference

Conference19th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR 2020
Country/TerritoryBrazil
CityVirtual, Recife/Porto de Galinhas
Period9/11/2013/11/20

Keywords

  • 2D/3D Views
  • Controller types
  • First Person Shooter
  • Gaming
  • Head-Mounted Displays
  • Virtual Reality

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