Work–life balance: A longitudinal evaluation of a new measure across Australia and New Zealand workers

Paula Brough*, Carolyn Timms, Michael P. O’Driscoll, Thomas Kalliath, Oi Ling Siu, Cindy Sit, Danny Lo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

157 Citations (Scopus)


The work–life balance literature has recently identified the need for construct refinement. In response to these discussions, this research describes the development and validation of a concise measure of work–life balance, based on individuals’ subjective perceptions of balance between their work and other aspects of their lives. The structure, reliability and validity of this unidimensional, four-item measure was confirmed in four independent heterogeneous samples of workers employed in Australia and New Zealand (N = 6983). Work–life balance was negatively associated with work demands, turnover intentions and psychological strain, and positively associated with both family and job satisfaction, confirming the research hypotheses. Evidence of these relationships over time was also demonstrated. This research confirms that this new measure of work–life balance demonstrates robust psychometric properties and predicts relevant criterion variables.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2724-2744
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Human Resource Management
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2014


  • Longitudinal
  • Psychological strain
  • Structural equation modelling
  • Turnover
  • Work demands
  • Work–life balance


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