Unusual Na+ Ion Intercalation/Deintercalation in Metal-Rich Cu1.8S for Na-Ion Batteries

Hyunjung Park, Jiseok Kwon, Heechae Choi, Donghyeok Shin, Taeseup Song*, Xiong Wen David Lou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A key issue with Na-ion batteries is the development of active materials with stable electrochemical reversibility through the understanding of their sodium storage mechanisms. We report a sodium storage mechanism and properties of a new anode material, digenite Cu1.8S, based on its crystallographic study. It is revealed that copper sulfides (CuxS) can have metal-rich formulas (x ≥ 1.6), due to the unique oxidation state of +1 found in group 11 elements. These phases enable the unit cell to consist of all strong Cu-S bonds and no direct S-S bonds, which are vulnerable to external stress/strain that could result in bond cleavage as well as decomposition. Because of its structural rigidness, the Cu1.8S shows an intercalation/deintercalation reaction mechanism even in a low potential window of 0.1-2.2 V versus Na/Na+ without irreversible phase transformation, which most of the metal sulfides experience through a conversion reaction mechanism. It uptakes, on average, 1.4 Na+ ions per unit cell (∼250 mAh g-1) and exhibits ∼100% retention over 1000 cycles at 2C in a tuned voltage range of 0.5-2.2 V through an overall solid solution reaction with negligible phase separation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2827-2837
Number of pages11
JournalACS Nano
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes

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