The Impact of a Decrease in Energy Reserve to Production Ratio on Malaysia’s Energy Security

Saleh Shadman*, Christina Chin May May, Novita Sakundarini, Eng Hwa Yap

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingConference Proceedingpeer-review


With the rapid growth of population and increase in energy demand, there is a high demand for fossil fuels to meet the supply needs. In this research, the decreasing impact of fossil fuels reserves to the production ratio (R/P) is studied using the system dynamics approach of modelling. A total of 3 dimensions, namely, availability of energy, socio-economy, and environmental sustainability, was studied with their relevant indicators. Three causal loop diagrams (CLDs) were combined to form one final CLD, followed by converting the CLD to a stock and flow diagram (SFD). The SFD is simulated to draw the significant findings of this research. The decreasing reserves of fossil fuels can threaten the economic growth subsequently the nation’s social well-being. Per this, it is vital to understand how energy security is impaired if such a scenario arises. The simulation results suggest that there will be a decrease in energy consumption, growth in economic health, and energy intensity due to a decrease in the R/P ratio. Energy efficiency seems to improve due to more careful use of lower supply in this scenario; however, it is not an indication of improved technological applicability or energy-efficient technologies. Energy policies such as the national depletion policy need to be curated to control the current usage of fossil fuels and introduce renewable energy sources faster to the energy mix to reduce dependency on fossil fuels.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnabling Industry 4.0 through Advances in Manufacturing and Materials - Selected Articles from iM3F 2021
EditorsAmiril Sahab Abdul Sani, Muhammed Nafis Osman Zahid, Mohamad Rusydi Mohamad Yasin, Siti Zubaidah Ismail, Mohd Zairulnizam Mohd Zawawi, Ahmad Rosli Abdul Manaf, Siti Nadiah Mohd Saffe, Radhiyah Abd Aziz, Faiz Mohd Turan
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9789811928895
Publication statusPublished - 2022
EventInnovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Materials Forum, iM3F 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 20 Sept 202120 Sept 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print)2195-4356
ISSN (Electronic)2195-4364


ConferenceInnovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Materials Forum, iM3F 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • Energy policy
  • Energy reserves
  • Energy security
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Socio-economy
  • System dynamics


Dive into the research topics of 'The Impact of a Decrease in Energy Reserve to Production Ratio on Malaysia’s Energy Security'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this