The distinctiveness and diversity of entrepreneurial ecosystems in China, Japan, and South Korea: an exploratory analysis

Martin Hemmert*, Adam R. Cross, Ying Cheng, Jae Jin Kim, Florian Kohlbacher, Masahiro Kotosaka, Franz Waldenberger, Leven J. Zheng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Entrepreneurial ecosystems at the regional level have been intensively studied in Western countries, but much less so in East Asia. We study five major ecosystems located in Tokyo, Seoul, Beijing, Suzhou, and Chongqing, focusing on the business conditions for information technology (IT) start-ups. Our domain analysis reveals that these entrepreneurial ecosystems differ in various important aspects from leading Western counterparts such as Silicon Valley. Furthermore, we find differences in the growth and internationalization of firms across entrepreneurial ecosystems in China, Japan, and South Korea. Public policy should focus on supporting high-potential start-ups and strengthening the ecosystems’ global outreach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-247
Number of pages37
JournalAsian Business and Management
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • China
  • Domain analysis
  • Entrepreneurial ecosystems
  • IT start-ups
  • Japan
  • South Korea

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