Tactical and Misconduct Actions Leading to VAR Interventions in Top-Flights European Soccer Leagues

Rabiu Muazu Musa, Anwar P. P. Abdul Majeed*, Mohamad Razali Abdullah, Garry Kuan, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter highlights the tactical and misconduct-related offences which highly evoke the interventions of VAR. It has been demonstrated from the study findings that a set of actions encompassing attack wrecking, ground challenges, misconduct, dangerous play, air challenges, and challenges off the ball are pivotal in predicting the likelihood of an on-field referee to consult VAR. It has also been demonstrated from the current finding that the optimized kNN model is able to yield an excellent prediction of the level of VAR assistance with respect to the investigated actions. It is then inferred that referees’ training programmes should include aspects related to players’ misconducts behaviours and offensive tactical actions during match play.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Publication series

NameSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
ISSN (Print)2191-530X
ISSN (Electronic)2191-5318


  • European soccer league
  • kNN optimization
  • Misconducts behaviour
  • Offensive tactics
  • Referees
  • Training strategy
  • VAR assistance


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