Spatiotemporal joint analysis of PM2.5 and Ozone in California with INLA approach

Jianan Pan, Kunyang He, Kai Wang, Qing Mu, Chengxiu Ling*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The substantial threat of concurrent air pollutants to public health is increasingly severe under climate change. To identify the common drivers and extent of spatiotemporal similarity of PM2.5 and ozone (O3), this paper proposed a log Gaussian–Gumbel Bayesian hierarchical model allowing for sharing a stochastic partial differential equation and autoregressive model of order one (SPDE-AR(1)) spatiotemporal interaction structure. The proposed model, implemented by the approach of integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA), outperforms in terms of estimation accuracy and prediction capacity for its increased parsimony and reduced uncertainty, especially for the shared O3 sub-model. Besides the consistently significant influence of temperature (positive), extreme drought (positive), fire burnt area (positive), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (positive), and wind speed (negative) on both PM2.5 and O3, surface pressure and precipitation demonstrate positive associations with PM2.5 and O3, respectively. While population density relates to neither. In addition, our results demonstrate similar spatiotemporal interactions between PM2.5 and O3, indicating that the spatial and temporal variations of these pollutants show relatively considerable consistency in California. Finally, with the aid of the excursion function, we see that the areas around the intersection of San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties are likely to exceed the unhealthy O3 level for USG simultaneously with other areas throughout the year. Our findings provide new insights for regional and seasonal strategies in the co-control of PM2.5 and O3. Our methodology is expected to be utilized when interest lies in multiple interrelated processes in the fields of environment and epidemiology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121294
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jun 2024


  • Bayesian hierarchical model
  • Integrated nested Laplace approximation
  • PM and O pollution
  • Sharing effect


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