Prevalence and Differences of Decisions Error in Top-Class European Soccer Leagues

Rabiu Muazu Musa, Anwar P. P. Abdul Majeed*, Mohamad Razali Abdullah, Garry Kuan, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


In this chapter, we investigated the prevalence and differences in decisions error across European soccer leagues. A set of event-related variables, namely foul not detected, offsides not detected, yellow cards not shown, red cards not shown, and goals disallowed, are shown to be essential in differentiating the referees in their ability to deliver the appropriate decisions across the leagues during match play. It has been shown that the English Premier League referees committed more errors as compared to referees in the Bundesliga, Laliga, Serie A, and Ligue1. Interestingly, the referees from the French Ligue1 display the lowest decision error relative to the variables examined.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Publication series

NameSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
ISSN (Print)2191-530X
ISSN (Electronic)2191-5318


  • Bundesliga
  • Decision error
  • English Premier League
  • European soccer leagues
  • Ligue1
  • Referees bias
  • Serie A


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