Pattern Recognition of Misconducts Offences and Bookings of Top European Soccer Leagues Referees

Rabiu Muazu Musa, Anwar P. P. Abdul Majeed*, Mohamad Razali Abdullah, Garry Kuan, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


In this chapter, we examine the key fouls and misconducts-related offences associated with European championship tournaments. A variety of misconduct and foul-related activities, including fouls, challenges, challenges per foul, yellow cards, fouls per card, air challenges, ground challenges, risky play, misconduct, and attack wrecking, have been shown to be common in the European leagues. Furthermore, it was shown that the nature of the game has been transformed significantly, with many teams adopting aggressive plays, sabotage, and misconduct-related offences. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that referees are overloaded with increasing cognitive loads such as limited knowledge of the actual event, context, emotions, and time constraints, which frequently result in unconscious bias during judgments.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Publication series

NameSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
ISSN (Print)2191-530X
ISSN (Electronic)2191-5318


  • European soccer championships
  • Football sabotage
  • Misconducts offences
  • Referees judgement


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