Optimizing heat source distribution in sintering molds: Integrating response surface model with sequential quadratic programming

Sanli Liu, Min Chen*, Nan Zhu, Zhouyi Xiang, Songhua Huang, Shunqi Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The sintering mold imposes strict requirements for temperature uniformity. The mold geometric parameters and the power configuration of heating elements exert substantial influence. In this paper, we introduce an optimization approach that combines response surface models with the sequential quadratic programming algorithm to optimize the geometric parameters and heating power configuration of a heating system for sintering mold. The response surface models of the maximum temperature difference, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature of the sintering area are constructed utilizing the central composite design method. The model's reliability is rigorously confirmed through variance analysis, residual analysis, and generalization capability validation. The models demonstrate remarkable predictive accuracy within the design space. A nonlinear constrained optimization model is established based on the response surface models, and the optimal parameters are obtained after 9 iterations using the sequential quadratic programming algorithm. Under the optimal parameters, the maximum temperature difference is maintained at less than 5 °C, confirming exceptional temperature uniformity. We conduct parameter analysis based on standardized effects to determine the main influencing factors of temperature uniformity, revealing that the distance between adjacent heating rods and the power density of the inner heating rods exert significant influence. Enhanced temperature uniformity can be achieved by adopting a larger distance between heating rods and configuring the power density of the heating rods to a relatively modest level. This work introduces a practical approach to optimize the heating systems for sintering molds, with potential applications in various industrial mold optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere29376
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2024


  • Optimal design
  • Response surface methodology
  • Sequential quadratic programming
  • Sintering mold
  • Temperature uniformity


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