Multi-scale plasticity homogenization of Sn–3Ag-0.5Cu: From β-Sn micropillars to polycrystals with intermetallics

Yilun Xu*, Tianhong Gu*, Jingwei Xian, Finn Giuliani, T. Ben Britton, Christopher M. Gourlay, Fionn P.E. Dunne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The mechanical properties of β-Sn single crystals have been systematically investigated using a combined methodology of micropillar tests and rate-dependent crystal plasticity modelling. The slip strength and rate sensitivity of several key slip systems within β-Sn single crystals have been determined. Consistency between the numerically predicted and experimentally observed slip traces has been shown for pillars oriented to activate single and double slip. Subsequently, the temperature-dependent, intermetallic-size-governing behaviour of a polycrystal β-Sn-rich alloy SAC305 (96.5Sn–3Ag-0.5Cu wt%) is predicted through a multi-scale homogenization approach, and the predicted temperature- and rate-sensitivity reproduce independent experimental results. The integrated experimental and numerical approaches provide mechanistic understanding and fundamental material properties of microstructure-sensitive behaviour of electronic solders subject to thermomechanical loading, including thermal fatigue.

Original languageEnglish
Article number143876
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering: A
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Crystal plasticity
  • Lead-free solders
  • Micropillar compression tests
  • Rate sensitivity


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