Mixed-type modeling of structures with slender and deep beam elements

Jian Liu, Serhan Guner, Boyan I. Mihaylov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete frame structures with slender members can be performed accurately and efficiently with one-dimensional (1-D) elements based on the plane-sections-remain-plane hypothesis. However, if the frame also includes deep beams which require two-dimensional (2-D) high-fidelity finite element procedures, the analysis of large structures can become very costly. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a mixed-type modeling framework which integrates 1-D slender beam elements with a novel 1-D macroelement for deep beams. The framework is implemented in an existing nonlinear analysis procedure and is used to model 18 deep beam tests and a 20-story frame. It is shown that the proposed modeling framework provides similarly accurate predictions to the 2-D high-fidelity procedures but requires a fraction of the time for modeling and analysis. Furthermore, the macroelement improves the post-peak predictions, and therefore the framework is suitable for evaluating the resilience of structures under extreme loading.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-264
Number of pages12
JournalACI Structural Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Deep beams
  • Macroelement
  • Mixed-type modeling
  • Shear
  • Slender elements

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