IOBPCS based models and decoupling thinking

Joakim Wikner*, Mohamed M. Naim, Virginia L.M. Spiegler, Junyi Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The inventory and order based production control system (IOBPCS) is mainly a model of a forecast driven production system where the production decision is based on the forecast in combination with the deviation between target inventory and actual inventory. The model has been extended in various directions by including e.g. WIP feedback but also by interpreting the inventory as an order book and hence representing a customer order driven system. In practice a system usually consists of one forecast driven subsystem in tandem with a customer order driven subsystem and the interface between the two subsystems is represented by information flows and a stock point associated with the customer order decoupling point (CODP). The CODP may be positioned late in the flow, as in make to stock systems, or early, as in make to order systems, but in any case the model should be able to capture the properties of both subsystems in combination. A challenge in separating forecast driven from customer order driven is that neither the inventory nor the order book should be allowed to take on negative values, and hence non-linearities are introduced making the model more difficult to solve analytically unless the model is first linearized. In summary the model presented here is based on two derivatives of IOBPCS that are in tandem, and interfaces between them related to where the demand information flow is decoupled and the position of the CODP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-166
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Production Economics
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • CODP
  • System dynamics


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