Improving Multi-Hop Time Synchronization Performance in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Packet-Relaying Gateways with Per-Hop Delay Compensation

Xintao Huan, Kyeong Soo Kim*, Sanghyuk Lee, Eng Gee Lim, Alan Marshall

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Based on the reverse asymmetric time synchronization framework, we have proposed several schemes with a major focus on the energy efficiency and computational complexity of a large number of battery-powered, low-cost sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To address the cumulative end-to-end synchronization error, we have also introduced an idea of compensating for the processing delays at packet-relaying gateways as an energy-efficient way of multi-hop extension of WSN time synchronization schemes. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the multi-hop extension of WSN time synchronization schemes based on packet-relaying gateways with the per-hop delay compensation and the results of extensive experiments for the energy-efficient time synchronization schemes based on the reverse asymmetric time synchronization framework together with the flooding time synchronization protocol as a representative of existing schemes. Experimental results based on a real testbed demonstrate that the multi-hop extension based on packet-relaying gateways with the per-hop delay compensation greatly improves the performance of time synchronization of all the schemes considered compared to the multi-hop extension based on the conventional time-translating gateways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6093-6105
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Volume69
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

Keywords

  • Multi-hop time synchronization
  • packet relaying
  • processing delay compensation
  • wireless sensor networks

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