Impact of Tutorial Modes with Different Time Flow Rates in Virtual Reality Games

Boyuan Chen, Xinan Yan, Xuning Hu, Dominic Kao, Hai Ning Liang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Virtual reality's (VR) unique affordances compared to traditional media have produced innovative interaction modes and tutorial methodologies in VR games. Existing research predominantly focuses on the performance of VR tutorial modes, such as the placement of text and diagrams within tutorial content. However, few studies have delved into other attributes of tutorials. This study categorizes 4 VR game tutorial modes based on time flow: (1) traditional instruction screen, (2) slow motion, (3) bullet time, and (4) context-sensitive mode. This paper evaluates the impact of these 4 VR game tutorial modes with varying time flow rates on controls learnability, engagement-related outcomes, and player performance. We conducted a between-subjects experiment with 59 participants. Results indicated that bullet time significantly enhanced controls learnability, reduced cognitive load, and improved player performance when compared to other tutorial modes. Our research contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of VR game tutorials and offers practical guidance for game designers, underscoring the potential of bullet time to enhance learnability and game experience.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
JournalProceedings of the ACM on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2024


  • Game Tutorial
  • Games
  • User Study
  • Virtual Reality


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