Hepatitis B Viral Protein HBx and the Molecular Mechanisms Modulating the Hallmarks of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

Enakshi Sivasudhan, Neil Blake, Zhiliang Lu, Jia Meng, Rong Rong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


With 296 million cases estimated worldwide, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV-encoded oncogene X protein (HBx), a key multifunctional regulatory protein, drives viral replication and interferes with several cellular signalling pathways that drive virus-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the role of HBx in modulating the various hallmarks of HCC by supporting tumour initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis. Understanding HBx-mediated dimensions of complexity in driving liver malignancies could provide the key to unlocking novel and repurposed combinatorial therapies to combat HCC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number741
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2022


  • Cancer hallmarks
  • HBx protein
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Therapeutics

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