Happiness at different ages: The social context matters

John F. Helliwell*, Haifang Huang, Max B. Norton, Shun Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This paper uses a variety of individual-level survey data from several countries to test for interactions between subjective well-being at different ages and variables measuring the nature and quality of the social context at work, at home, and in the community. While earlier studies have found important age patterns (often U-shaped) and social context effects, these two sets of variables have generally been treated as mutually independent. We test for and find several large and highly significant interactions. Results are presented for life evaluations and (in some surveys) for happiness yesterday, in models with and without other control variables. The U-shape in age is found to be significantly flatter, and well-being in the middle of the age range higher, for those who are in workplaces with partner-like superiors, for those living as couples, and for those who have lived for longer in their communities. A strong sense of community belonging is associated with greater life satisfaction at all ages, but especially so at ages 60 and above, in some samples deepening the U-shape in age by increasing the size of the life satisfaction gains following the mid-life low.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Economics of Happiness
Subtitle of host publicationHow the Easterlin Paradox Transformed Our Understanding of Well-Being and Progress
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9783030158354
ISBN (Print)9783030158347
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sept 2019
Externally publishedYes


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