Global multifaceted biodiversity patterns, centers, and conservation needs in angiosperms

Ao Luo, Yaoqi Li, Nawal Shrestha, Xiaoting Xu, Xiangyan Su, Yichao Li, Tong Lyu, Kilara Waris, Zhiyao Tang, Xiaojuan Liu, Luxiang Lin, Yongsheng Chen, Kuiling Zu, Wenqi Song, Shijia Peng, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Loïc Pellissier, Zhiheng Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The Convention on Biological Diversity seeks to conserve at least 30% of global land and water areas by 2030, which is a challenge but also an opportunity to better preserve biodiversity, including flowering plants (angiosperms). Herein, we compiled a large database on distributions of over 300,000 angiosperm species and the key functional traits of 67,024 species. Using this database, we constructed biodiversity-environment models to predict global patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity in terrestrial angiosperms and provide a comprehensive mapping of the three diversity facets. We further evaluated the current protection status of the biodiversity centers of these diversity facets. Our results showed that geographical patterns of the three facets of plant diversity exhibited substantial spatial mismatches and nonoverlapping conservation priorities. Idiosyncratic centers of functional diversity, particularly of herbaceous species, were primarily distributed in temperate regions and under weaker protection compared with other biodiversity centers of taxonomic and phylogenetic facets. Our global assessment of multifaceted biodiversity patterns and centers highlights the insufficiency and unbalanced conservation among the three diversity facets and the two growth forms (woody vs. herbaceous), thus providing directions for guiding the future conservation of global plant diversity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)817-828
Number of pages12
JournalScience China Life Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • angiosperms
  • functional diversity
  • herbaceous species
  • phylogenetic diversity
  • plant traits
  • species richness
  • woody species


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