Exploration of Foot-based Text Entry Techniques for Virtual Reality Environments

Tingjie Wan, Liangyuting Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Pourang Irani, Lingyun Yu, Hai Ning Liang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingConference Proceedingpeer-review


Foot-based input can serve as a supplementary or alternative approach to text entry in virtual reality (VR). This work explores the feasibility and design of foot-based techniques that are hands-free. We first conducted a preliminary study to assess foot-based text entry in standing and seated positions with tap and swipe input approaches. The findings showed that foot-based text input was feasible, with the possibility for performance and usability improvements. We then developed three foot-based techniques, including two tap-based techniques (FeetSymTap and FeetAsymTap) and one swipe-based technique (FeetGestureTap), and evaluated their performance via another user study. The results show that the two tap-based techniques supported entry rates of 11.12 WPM and 10.80 WPM, while the swipe-based technique led to 9.16 WPM. Our findings provide a solid foundation for the future design and implementation of foot-based text entry in VR and have the potential to be extended to MR and AR.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI 2024 - Proceedings of the 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Sytems
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
ISBN (Electronic)9798400703300
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2024
Event2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI'24 - Honolulu, United States
Duration: 11 May 202416 May 2024

Publication series

NameConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings


Conference2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • foot-based interaction
  • hands-free interaction
  • text entry
  • virtual reality


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