ELUCNN for explainable COVID-19 diagnosis

Shui Hua Wang, Suresh Chandra Satapathy, Man Xia Xie*, Yu Dong Zhang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


COVID-19 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus caused by a strain of coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several noteworthy variants of SARS-CoV-2 were declared by WHO as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. Till 13/Dec/2022, it has caused 6.65 million death tolls, and over 649 million confirmed positive cases. Based on the convolutional neural network (CNN), this study first proposes a ten-layer CNN as the backbone model. Then, the exponential linear unit (ELU) is introduced to replace ReLU, and the traditional convolutional block is now transformed into conv-ELU. Finally, an ELU-based CNN (ELUCNN) model is proposed for COVID-19 diagnosis. Besides, the MDA strategy is used to enhance the size of the training set. We develop a mobile app integrating ELUCNN, and this web app is run on a client–server modeled structure. Ten runs of the tenfold cross-validation experiment show our model yields a sensitivity of 94.41 ± 0.98 , a specificity of 94.84 ± 1.21 , an accuracy of 94.62 ± 0.96 , and an F1 score of 94.61 ± 0.95. The ELUCNN model and mobile app are effective in COVID-19 diagnosis and give better results than 14 state-of-the-art COVID-19 diagnosis models concerning accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSoft Computing
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • Cloud computing
  • Convolutional neural network
  • Cross validation
  • Deep learning
  • Exponential linear unit
  • Mobile app
  • Multiple-way data augmentation
  • SARS-CoV-2


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