Efficient image tampering localization using semi-fragile watermarking and error control codes

Pascal Lefèvre, Philippe Carré, Caroline Fontaine, Philippe Gaborit, Jiwu Huang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we propose an image tampering localization algorithm using semi-fragile watermarking and Error-Locating codes in the DWT domain. By introducing different families of codes, we show the benefit in terms of image tampering localization and complexity of using control code error localization as an authentication function. Indeed, we first experimentally show that error localization block codes is as precise as using classical error correcting codes (Reed-Solomon and BCH codes) to locate image tampering. However, their corresponding decoding algorithms complexity is at least quadratic which make them impractical for some real time applications. To solve this problem, we introduce error-control codes called Error-Locating codes where error localization is reduced to a single syndrome computation performed with low number of binary operations (detailed later in the paper). We provide comparisons of image quality and tampering localization performances using error-detection, error-localization and error-correction approaches with different error control codes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108342
JournalSignal Processing
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Error control codes
  • Error-Locating codes
  • Parity check matrix
  • Real-time applications
  • Semi-fragile watermarking
  • Tampering detection and localization


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