Digitalization and innovation in green ports: A review of current issues, contributions and the way forward in promoting sustainable ports and maritime logistics

Zhechen Zhang, Chenghong Song, Jiawen Zhang, Zhonghao Chen*, Mingxin Liu, Faissal Aziz, Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Pow Seng Yap

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


As a fundamental transportation mode, maritime logistics has become an indispensable component on a global scale. However, there are multiple drawbacks associated with ports operating in traditional ways, such as higher cost, lower efficiency and generating more environmental pollution. Digital technologies have been researched and implemented gradually in green ports, especially in data collection and real-time monitoring, and these advances help to promote higher work efficiency and reduce detrimental environmental impacts. It was found that green ports (e.g. ports of Raffina, Los Angeles, and Long Beach) generally perform better in energy conservation and pollutant emission reduction. However, considering the variability in the level of digitalization, there are challenges in achieving effective communications between individual ports. Therefore, to optimize and update green port practices, a systematic review is necessary to comprehensively analyze the beneficial contributions of green ports. This review adopted bibliometric analysis to examine the shipping framework focusing on green ports digitalization and innovation. After that, with regards to the bibliometric results, five aspects were analyzed, including environment, performance, policy, technology, and management. Besides, intelligent life-cycle management was systematically discussed to improve green ports and maritime logistics performance and sustainability in three aspects, namely waste discharge, shipping management system and green ports management. The findings revealed that green ports and maritime logistics require digital cooperation, transformation, and management to achieve sustainable development goals, including route selection and control of ships' numbers, weather prediction, and navigational effluent monitoring, albeit with some obstacles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169075
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2024


  • Digitalization
  • Green ports
  • Industry 4.0
  • Maritime logistics
  • Sustainability


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