Design of interactions for handheld augmented reality devices usingwearable smart textiles: Findings from a user elicitation study

Vijayakumar Nanjappan, Rongkai Shi, Hai Ning Liang*, Haoru Xiao, Kim King Tong Lau, Khalad Hasan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Advanced developments in handheld devices' interactive 3D graphics capabilities, processing power, and cloud computing have provided great potential for handheld augmented reality (HAR) applications, which allow users to access digital information anytime, anywhere. Nevertheless, existing interaction methods are still confined to the touch display, device camera, and built-in sensors of these handheld devices, which suffer from obtrusive interactions with AR content. Wearable fabric-based interfaces promote subtle, natural, and eyes-free interactions which are needed when performing interactions in dynamic environments. Prior studies explored the possibilities of using fabric-based wearable interfaces for head-mounted AR display (HMD) devices. The interface metaphors of HMD AR devices are inadequate for handheld AR devices as a typical HAR application require users to use only one hand to perform interactions. In this paper, we aim to investigate the use of a fabric-based wearable device as an alternative interface option for performing interactions with HAR applications. We elicited user-preferred gestures which are socially acceptable and comfortable to use for HAR devices. We also derived an interaction vocabulary of the wrist and thumb-to-index touch gestures, and present broader design guidelines for fabric-based wearable interfaces for handheld augmented reality applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3177
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • Augmented reality
  • Fabric-based interface
  • Handheld AR displays
  • Interaction design
  • Mobile devices
  • Smart clothing
  • User-elicitation

Cite this