Biomechanical Effects of the Porous Structure of Gyroid and Voronoi Hip Implants: A Finite Element Analysis Using an Experimentally Validated Model

Zatul Faqihah Mohd Salaha, Muhammad Imam Ammarullah, Nik Nur Ain Azrin Abdullah, Aishah Umairah Abd Aziz, Hong Seng Gan, Abdul Halim Abdullah, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, Muhammad Hanif Ramlee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is most likely one of the most successful surgical procedures in medicine. It is estimated that three in four patients live beyond the first post-operative year, so appropriate surgery is needed to alleviate an otherwise long-standing suboptimal functional level. However, research has shown that during a complete THA procedure, a solid hip implant inserted in the femur can damage the main arterial supply of the cortex and damage the medullary space, leading to cortical bone resorption. Therefore, this study aimed to design a porous hip implant with a focus on providing more space for better osteointegration, improving the medullary revascularisation and blood circulation of patients. Based on a review of the literature, a lightweight implant design was developed by applying topology optimisation and changing the materials of the implant. Gyroid and Voronoi lattice structures and a solid hip implant (as a control) were designed. In total, three designs of hip implants were constructed by using SolidWorks and nTopology software version 2.31. Point loads were applied at the x, y and z-axis to imitate the stance phase condition. The forces represented were x = 320 N, y = −170 N, and z = −2850 N. The materials that were used in this study were titanium alloys. All of the designs were then simulated by using Marc Mentat software version 2020 (MSC Software Corporation, Munich, Germany) via a finite element method. Analysis of the study on topology optimisation demonstrated that the Voronoi lattice structure yielded the lowest von Mises stress and displacement values, at 313.96 MPa and 1.50 mm, respectively, with titanium alloys as the materials. The results also indicate that porous hip implants have the potential to be implemented for hip implant replacement, whereby the mechanical integrity is still preserved. This result will not only help orthopaedic surgeons to justify the design choices, but could also provide new insights for future studies in biomechanics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3298
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • Gyroid
  • Voronoi
  • finite element
  • hip implant
  • lattice structure


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