Association of Physical Activity with Anthropometrics Variables and Health-Related Risks in Healthy Male Smokers

Vijayamurugan Eswaramoorthi, Muhammad Zulhusni Suhaimi*, Mohamad Razali Abdullah, Zulkefli Sanip, Anwar P.P. Abdul Majeed, Muhammad Zuhaili Suhaimi, Cain C.T. Clark, Rabiu Muazu Musa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Anthropometric variables (AV) are shown to be essential in assessing health status and to serve as markers for evaluating health-related risks in different populations. Studying the impact of physical activity (PA) on AV and its relationship with smoking is a non-trivial task from a public health perspective. In this study, a total of 107 healthy male smokers (37 ± 9.42 years) were recruited from different states in Malaysia. Standard procedures of measurement of several anthropometric indexes were carried out, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPPQ) was used to ascertain the PA levels of the participants. A principal component analysis was employed to examine the AV associated with physical activity, k-means clustering was used to group the participants with respect to the PA levels, and discriminant analysis models were utilized to determine the differential variables between the groups. A logistic regression (LR) model was further employed to ascertain the efficacy of the discriminant models in classifying the two smoking groups. Six AV out of twelve were associated with smoking behaviour. Two groups were obtained from the k-means analysis, based on the IPPQ and termed partially physically active smokers (PPAS) or physically nonactive smokers (PNAS). The PNAS were found to be at high risk of contracting cardiovascular problems, as compared with the PPAS. The PPAS cluster was characterized by a desirable AV, as well as a lower level of nicotine compared with the PNAS cluster. The LR model revealed that certain AV are vital for maintaining good health, and a partially active lifestyle could be effective in mitigating the effect of tobacco on health in healthy male smokers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6993
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • anthropometrics variables
  • health risks
  • healthy smokers
  • multivariate analysis
  • physical activity
  • preventive healthcare


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