Arousal and psychopharmaclogy of anxiety in experimental models

A. V. Kalueff*, N. A. Nutza

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Locomotion is a behavioural marker of arousal in animals whereas exploration serve as a reliable criterion for anxiety level. Traditional views of central excitatory mechanisms consider them as pro-arousal and anxiogenic. Central inhibitory mechanism are thought to be sedative and anxiolytic. However, data exist on paradoxical anti-anxiety effect of low dose of certain anxiolytics in a number of experimental models. Likewises, anxiolytics might exert paradoxical pro-arousal/anxiogenic profiles in animals. Both such data are difficult to interpret within traditional framework of arousal/anxiety concepts. The paper reviews data on complex non-linear interrelationships between anxiety and arousal and supports a theory of putative "anxiolytic" (comfort or pleasurable) emotions evoked by mild, but not high, arousal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-74
Number of pages2
JournalEksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes


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