Antipredator Benefits From Heterospecifics

Eben Goodale, Graeme D. Ruxton

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Animals can use other prey species to learn about the presence of predators and reduce their risk of predation. Species living in the same area can eavesdrop on other species’ alarm signals or cues. Animals may also temporarily join other species to mob predators, or may associate more stably with other species in mixed-species groups, in which competition and/or individual predation risk may be lower than in same-sized single-species groups. Such mutualistic interactions climax in sets of species that are usually or always found together, in some cases being rapidly consumed by predators in the absence of their partner.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Animal Behavior, Second Edition
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 1-5
ISBN (Electronic)9780128132524
ISBN (Print)9780128132517
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Alarm calls
  • Ant-plant mutualism
  • Chemical alarm cues
  • Heterospecific attraction
  • Interspecific communication
  • Mixed-species assemblages
  • Mixed-species flocks
  • Mobbing
  • Protection mutualisms
  • Shrimp-goby mutualism


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