Antipredator Benefits from Heterospecifics

E. Goodale*, G. D. Ruxton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Animals can use other prey species to learn about the presence of predators and reduce their risk of predation. Species living in the same area can eavesdrop on other species' alarm signals or cues. Animals may also actively join other species to mob predators or may associate with other species in mixed-species groups in which both competition and/or individual predation risk may be lower than in same-sized single-species groups. Such mutualistic interactions reach a climax in sets of species that are usually or always found together, in some cases being rapidly consumed by predators in the absence of the other species.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Animal Behavior
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9780080453378
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Alarm calls
  • Ant-plant mutualism
  • Chemical alarm cues
  • Heterospecific attraction
  • Interspecific communication
  • Mixed-species assemblages
  • Mixed-species flocks
  • Mobbing
  • Protection mutualisms
  • Shrimp-goby mutualism


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