Analytical modeling and parameter estimation of photovoltaic strings under partial shading conditions

Jieming Ma*, Dou Hong, Kangshi Wang, Ziqiang Bi, Xiaohui Zhu, Jie Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


An accurate estimation of the photovoltaic (PV) electrical characteristics is of significance to the decision-making related to the establishment and operation of PV systems. However, most of the existing PV models are very limited to predicting the PV behaviors under uniform irradiation conditions (UICs). This paper proposes a complete solution to modeling and simulation of PV strings under partial shading conditions (PSCs). The measured current-voltage (I–V) data are first characterized by a shading information matrix containing essential environmental conditions for operating points. The model parameters are estimated via a four-state Jaya (FSJ) algorithm, which applies an exploration-exploitation adaptation mechanism to make an appropriate trade-off between global and local searching efforts. Fed by the obtained shading information and optimal parameters, the “staircase” shape I–V curve can be accurately predicted via a comprehensive analytical PV model. The experimental results are tested on two different PV strings with multi-crystalline and mono-crystalline PV technologies. Results suggest that the proposed FSJ algorithm outperforms reported state-of-the-art optimization algorithms in terms of convergence speed and prediction errors. With the optimal parameters, the analytical PV model gives superior results under various PSCs. The proposed model and algorithms can serve as an efficient alternative for modeling PV strings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111494
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Modeling
  • Parameter estimation
  • Partial shading conditions
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Simulation

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