Analysis of the optimum tilt angle for a soiled PV panel

Ruidong Xu, Kai Ni*, Yihua Hu, Jikai Si, Huiqing Wen, Dongsheng Yu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Citations (Scopus)


A new model of the optimum tilt angle of a soiled photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed in this paper. The tilt angle is a key factor that influences the output power of PV panel, while dust deposition is an inevitable external element to be considered. In this paper, the solar radiation model is studied by analysing the Hay, Davies, Klucher, Reindl (HDKR) model. The cell temperature of a PV panel is also investigated to evaluate the power output. A fitting formula is derived to express the relationship between the dust deposition density and the tilt angle, and it is integrated in the output model of a fixed-type PV panel. Besides, the effect of dust deposition on the transmittance is analysed. An inverse correlation between the dust deposition density and tilt angle can be obtained, and the optimum tilt angle is calculated to maximize the power output of a soiled PV panel. Simulation is conducted by Matlab to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model of the optimum tilt angle with the shielding effect by dust. Furthermore, the relationship between dust deposition and the working temperature of PV panel is investigated by indoor experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-109
Number of pages10
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Dust deposition
  • Optimum tilt angle
  • Photovoltaic (PV) panel
  • Shielding effect
  • Working temperature

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