Aggregated Zero-Knowledge Proof and Blockchain-Empowered Authentication for Autonomous Truck Platooning

Wanxin Li, Collin Meese, Hao Guo*, Mark Nejad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Platooning technologies enable trucks to drive cooperatively and automatically, providing benefits including less fuel consumption, greater road capacity, and safety. To establish trust during dynamic platooning formation, ensure vehicular data integrity, and guard platoons against potential attackers in mixed fleet environments, verifying any given vehicle's identity information before granting it access to join a platoon is pivotal. Besides, due to privacy concerns, truck owners may be reluctant to disclose private vehicular information, which can reveal their business data to untrusted third parties. To address these issues, this is the first study to propose an aggregated zero-knowledge proof and blockchain-empowered system for privacy-preserving identity verification in truck platooning. We provide the correctness proof and the security analysis of our proposed authentication scheme, highlighting its increased security and fast performance. The platooning formation procedure is re-designed to seamlessly incorporate the proposed authentication scheme, including the 1st catch-up and cooperative driving steps. The blockchain performs the role of verifier within the authentication scheme and stores platooning records on its digital ledger to guarantee data immutability and integrity. In addition, the proposed programmable access control policies enable truck companies to define who is allowed to access their platoon records. We implement the proposed system and perform extensive experiments on the Hyperledger platform. The results show that the blockchain can provide low latency and high throughput, the aggregated approach can offer a constant verification time of 500 milliseconds regardless of the number of proofs, and the platooning formation only takes seconds under different strategies. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our design for use in real-world truck platooning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9309-9323
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • Authentication
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • blockchain
  • Blockchains
  • Companies
  • Data privacy
  • data privacy
  • identity verification
  • platooning
  • Privacy
  • Security
  • Vehicle dynamics
  • zero-knowledge proof


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