A sustainable deep learning framework for object recognition using multi-layers deep features fusion and selection

Muhammad Rashid, Muhammad Attique Khan*, Majed Alhaisoni, Shui Hua Wang*, Syed Rameez Naqvi, Amjad Rehman, Tanzila Saba

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Citations (Scopus)


With an overwhelming increase in the demand of autonomous systems, especially in the applications related to intelligent robotics and visual surveillance, come stringent accuracy requirements for complex object recognition. A system that maintains its performance against a change in the object's nature is said to be sustainable and it has become a major area of research for the computer vision research community in the past few years. In this work, we present a sustainable deep learning architecture, which utilizes multi-layer deep features fusion and selection, for accurate object classification. The proposed approach comprises three steps: (1) By utilizing two deep learning architectures, Very Deep Convolutional Networks for Large-Scale Image Recognition and Inception V3, it extracts features based on transfer learning, (2) Fusion of all the extracted feature vectors is performed by means of a parallel maximum covariance approach, and (3) The best features are selected using Multi Logistic Regression controlled Entropy-Variances method. For verification of the robust selected features, the Ensemble Learning method named Subspace Discriminant Analysis is utilized as a fitness function. The experimental process is conducted using four publicly available datasets, including Caltech-101, Birds database, Butterflies database and CIFAR-100, and a ten-fold validation process which yields the best accuracies of 95.5%, 100%, 98%, and 68.80% for the datasets respectively. Based on the detailed statistical analysis and comparison with the existing methods, the proposed selection method gives significantly more accuracy. Moreover, the computational time of the proposed selection method is better for real-time implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5037
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Deep learning
  • Features fusion
  • Features selection
  • Object classification
  • Recognition


Dive into the research topics of 'A sustainable deep learning framework for object recognition using multi-layers deep features fusion and selection'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this