A standard MIDI file steganography based on music perception in note duration

Lei Guan, Yinji Jing, Shengchen Li*, Ru Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book or Report/Conference proceedingConference Proceedingpeer-review


Steganography aims to deliver messages in the recording space of a cover media without being noticed. Supported by the theory of music perception, note duration can be used as the recording space for a steganography method. This paper proposes a steganography method that embeds information in the duration of notes in a MIDI file and generates a new MIDI file in which the only difference lies in the note duration. Under several restrictions, the available varying range of each note is calculated, and then secret information is mapped on the change in note duration within the available range. A listening test and an evaluation on capacity are conducted to measure the transparency and capacity of the proposed method. The results reveal that the proposed method has perfect transparency with no perceptible difference in hearing, zero expansion in file size, and an effective capacity of 3.5%.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 6th Conference on Sound and Music Technology, CSMT - Revised Selected Papers, 2018
EditorsWei Li, Shengchen Li, Xi Shao, Zijin Li
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9789811387067
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event6th Conference on Sound and Music Technology, CSMT 2018 - Xiamen, China
Duration: 24 Nov 201826 Nov 2018

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Electrical Engineering
ISSN (Print)1876-1100
ISSN (Electronic)1876-1119


Conference6th Conference on Sound and Music Technology, CSMT 2018


  • MIDI
  • Note duration
  • Steganography

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