A Review of AC and DC Electric Springs

Minghao Wang, Yufei He, Xu Xu, Zhekang Dong, Yu Lei*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The large-scale integration of renewable energy sources in the power system can render instability issues, which degrades the power quality of the voltage supply. To address this issue, the electric springs (ES), which are elastic load demand control technologies, have been reported. Since it was proposed in 2011, many literatures on the applications, circuit topologies, control designs and the stability analysis of the ES have been reported. Based on the reported literatures, a comprehensive review of AC and DC ES technologies has been performed in this paper. The research outcomes are systematically summarized. The trend of the potential development of ES technologies is envisioned.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9321327
Pages (from-to)14398-14408
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Demand-side management
  • electric springs
  • power system
  • smart grid


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