A modified flowability classification model for moist and cohesive bulk solids

Wei Chen*, Alan W. Roberts

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The Jenike flowability classification is designed to indicate the handleability of bulk solids in material handling processes. However, for moist, cohesive bulk solids, it may fail to represent the true flowability/handleability at high consolidation stresses. The study presented in this paper introduces a modified flowability classification model aiming to improve the flowability/handleability prediction across a wide range of consolidation pressures. The evolution of the flow function of bulk materials under increasing moistures is initially discussed, based on which the Jenike flowability classification is reviewed. The modified flowability classification is then derived by considering the flow/no flow condition for mass flow hopper designs under both low and high consolidation stress states. The influence of the bulk material type and general operational conditions are also taken in account in deriving the modified classification method. A suite of bulk solids with a wide range of material properties are selected in an experimental program to validate the modified flowability classification. Results suggested the modified flowability classification is able to more accurately indicate the overall flowability/handleability of the bulk solids independent of the applied major consolidation stress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)639-650
Number of pages12
JournalPowder Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Flow factor
  • Jenike flowability classification
  • Mass flow
  • Moist bulk solids
  • Tensile strength


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