A four-electrode droplet triboelectric nanogenerator providing multimodal output

Peng He, Jing Ding, Le Lei, Wen Quan Tao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Water-triboelectric nanogenerators, leveraging contact electrification between water and solid surfaces, have exhibited significant potential to harvest energy. Different configurations of triboelectric nanogenerators offer various functionalities and promising application scenarios. This study introduces a four-electrode droplet triboelectric nanogenerator (FED-TENG). Different connection formats among the four electrodes result in multimodal outputs, enhancing adaptability across diverse applications. The selective generation of direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) output enables efficient, direct driving of DC or AC loads. The device also offers dual outputs distributed evenly or unevenly in power. Evenly distributed dual output accommodates simultaneous power supply to multiple similar loads, while unevenly distributed dual output is recommended for independent sensor applications. Additionally, the charge-transfer process in FED-TENG is dissected to elucidate the mechanism underlying different output modes. Anticipated findings from investigating FED-TENG hold promise for developing adaptable and versatile water-TENGs applicable to droplet energy-harvesting and sensor technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101800
JournalCell Reports Physical Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • alternating current
  • dual output
  • multimodal
  • triboelectric nanogenerator
  • water droplet


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