3D Morphology of Open Clusters in the Solar Neighborhood with Gaia EDR 3. II. Hierarchical Star Formation Revealed by Spatial and Kinematic Substructures

Xiaoying Pang*, Shih Yun Tang, Yuqian Li, Zeqiu Yu, Long Wang, Jiayu Li, Yezhang Li, Yifan Wang, Yanshu Wang, Teng Zhang, Mario Pasquato, M. B.N. Kouwenhoven

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We identify members of 65 open clusters in the solar neighborhood using the machine-learning algorithm StarGO based on Gaia EDR3 data. After adding members of 20 clusters from previous studies we obtain 85 clusters, and study their morphology and kinematics. We classify the substructures outside the tidal radius into four categories: filamentary (f1) and fractal (f2) for clusters <100 Myr, and halo (h) and tidal tail (t) for clusters >100 Myr. The kinematical substructures of f1-type clusters are elongated; these resemble the disrupted cluster Group X. Kinematic tails are distinct in t-type clusters, especially Pleiades. We identify 29 hierarchical groups in four young regions (Alessi 20, IC 348, LP 2373, LP 2442); 10 among these are new. The hierarchical groups form filament networks. Two regions (Alessi 20, LP 2373) exhibit global orthogonal expansion (stellar motion perpendicular to the filament), which might cause complete dispersal. Infalling-like flows (stellar motion along the filament) are found in UBC 31 and related hierarchical groups in the IC 348 region. Stellar groups in the LP 2442 region (LP 2442 gp 1-5) are spatially well mixed but kinematically coherent. A merging process might be ongoing in the LP 2442 subgroups. For younger systems (≤30 Myr), the mean axis ratio, cluster mass, and half-mass-radius tend to increase with age values. These correlations between structural parameters may imply two dynamical processes occurring in the hierarchical formation scenario in young stellar groups: (1) filament dissolution and (2) subgroup mergers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number156
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume931
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022

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